Physicists use particle accelerators to answer some of the most profound questions about the nature of the universe. These gargantuan machines accelerate charged particles to nearly the speed of light and then smash them together, re-creating the conditions that existed when our universe was cataclysmically born in the big bang. By analyzing the debris of the collisions, physicists hope to understand how the seemingly disparate forces and particles that exist in our universe are all connected and described by a unified theory. Unfortunately, as they get closer and closer to solving this mystery of creation, physicists need particle accelerators of ever greater power (and expense).The most powerful particle accelerator, now under construction at CERN, the European laboratory for particle physics on the French-Swiss border, is the 8.6-kilometer-diameter Large Hadron Collider (LHC). After the LHC is completed in 2007, the collisions of its two seven-trillion-volt proton beams should tell us what gives particles their mass. Other currently operating machines are attempting to explain why the universe contains more matter than antimatter and are giving us a peek into the primordial state of matter called a quark-gluon plasma. All these colliders are based on a bulky decades-old technology in which microwaves accelerate the particles.


There is a gene in your body’s cells that plays a key role in early spinal cord development. It belongs to Harvard University. Another gene makes the protein that the hepatitis A virus uses to attach to cells; the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services holds the patent on that. Incyte Corporation, based in Wil­mington, Del., has patented the gene of a receptor for histamine, the compound released by cells during the hay fever season. About half of all the genes known to be involved in cancer are patented.Human cells carry nearly 24,000 genes that constitute the blueprint for the 100 trillion cells of our body. As of the middle of last year, the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office had issued patents to corporations, universities, government agencies and nonprofit groups for nearly 20 percent of the human genome. To be more precise, 4,382 of the 23,688 genes stored in the National Center for Biotechnology Information’s database are tattooed with at least one patent, according to a study published in the October 14, 2005, Science by Fiona Murray and Kyle L. Jensen of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Incyte alone owns nearly 10 percent of all human genes…

The transistor, dating from 1947, has shrunk from a clunky, half-inch-high contraption to a device whose components boast dimensions a few hundreds of atoms in length. Batteries, on the other hand, have improved how much power they deliver at roughly one fiftieth of that pace.

Bell Laboratories, which built the first transistor, has now become involved with the reinvention of the battery. The goal is to apply the techniques used for manufacturing transistors to mass-produce a battery that can be built in with the other circuitry on a chip. The device, called a nanobattery, shrinks features of the electrodes to the nanometer scale..Perhaps in the future it won’t be an issue of charging up your batteries before a olong flight, but rather as simple as making sure you have enough of them installed on your electronic equipment in the first place so that you never need another one.

One of the most profound features of the universe is that it is stratified. Our everyday world depends hardly at all on the details either of atoms or of galaxies, and the feeling is mutual. Were it otherwise, science would not be possible: we could not know anything without knowing everything. Sometimes, though, the levels of reality do get jumbled, with odd effects.This past March a group of cosmologists—Edward Kolb of Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory and Sabino Matarrese, Alessio Notari and Antonio Riotto of the Italian National Institute of Nuclear Physics—argued that the acceleration of cosmic expansion, among the biggest mysteries of modern science, is one such effect. It could be the most elegant explanation for acceleration yet proposed, requiring neither exotic forms of energy nor new laws of physics, merely a careful accounting of how gravity interconnects structures of vastly different size. Or it could be a case of cosmological cold fusion.

Cosmologists routinely assume that the detailed arrangement of matter plays no role in the grand scheme of things. Their standard model treats the universe as though its density did not vary from place to place but had a uniform, average value of one atom per cubic meter. They solve for the expansion rate of this averaged universe and equate it with the average expansion rate of the actual universe. Individual patches of space may expand faster or slower, but researchers reckon that the discrepancies are localized.The trouble is, averages can be deceiving. A golf ball on average is a perfect sphere, but it does not fly like one. The dimples on its surface can double or triple the distance the ball travels. Gravity, like the behavior of air flowing over the dimples, is nonlinear, which led cosmologist George Ellis of the University of Cape Town in South Africa to suggest in the 1980s that the fine-scale texture of the universe might affect its large-scale behavior. This phenomenon is known as backreaction. Analogies occur in fields besides cosmology. Sound, for example, is usually stratified: it can be thought of as the sum of waves of various wavelengths, each of which ripples through a room as though the others were not even there. Yet when nonlinear processes operate, different wavelengths can cross-talk and even shift the average air density.


What cosmologists should do is track the gravitational effects of matter in all its irregularity—to take the average after they solve the equations rather than before—but that is a tall order. So although they widely agree that backreaction occurs, they argue over how big it is.Kolb and his colleagues claimed a huge effect, but it relied on a linkage not only from small to large but also from large to even larger—basically, attributing the acceleration of the observable universe to matter beyond the observable universe. That sounds impossible by definition. Distant matter may have been in contact with our universe long ago before falling out of touch, but critics such as Christopher Hirata of Prince-ton University and Uroš Seljak of the International Center for Theoretical Physics in Trieste, Italy, pointed out that it cannot have an ongoing influence on us without violating relativity theory.

Kolb’s team acknowledged making errors and is coming out with a new paper going back to a purely small to large backreaction. This approach might explain the so-called cosmic coincidence: why acceleration kicked in around the same time the growth of galaxies became strongly nonlinear. The sharp increase in galaxies’ density could have cascaded up the line and produced a decrease in the average cosmic density, which would have accelerated ex-pan-sion.

But earlier calculations by Seljak and others indicated that such an effect would not have been strong enough, and even cosmologists who are sympathetic think there is a long way to go. “At this point, this is an idea of how things could work out,” says Sysky Räsänen of the University of Oxford. “It’s something to motivate calculations, not something backed up by calculations.”